Turning can be done in conventional manual machines, but more and more machines are used that are controlled by a computer, also called CNC
16.11.2019 | 364
Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non-rotating tool bit, processes in a helical web by moving the tool more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates.
Generally, the term "turning" is used in machining external surfaces with this cutting process, while the same cutting process used on internal surfaces (i.e. holes, of one kind or another) is called "punching". However, both types are in the same category.
Materials such as wood, metal, plastic and stone can be turned.
Various machines and methods:
In this type of turning, the workpiece - usually metal - is clamped in a so-called chuck with three or four centering jaws. The cutting tool is clamped in a tool holder, which in turn is mounted on the so-called carriage which moves parallel / horizontally with the workpiece. The tool cuts material from the workpiece in the form of so-called shavings. The cutting tool's longitudinal feed usually takes place via a mechanical drive, but can also be done manually. Common methods of support turning are: straight, tapered, profile, plane, and plug turning. Various types of thread can also be turned inside and out (also called "beating thread").
When machining long workpieces, an end support may be needed in the form of a stud with a rotating stud pressed into a centered hole. If the end of the long workpiece is to be machined, a so-called support doll with 3 ball-bearing rollers mounted 120º apart is advantageously used. The dummy is placed as close to the end of the workpiece as possible.
In non-cylindrical and asymmetrical workpieces or when one wants to achieve an eccentric machining, a so-called backsheet can be used with four jaws that are adjustable independently of one another.
A further clamping method is that m.h.a. div. clamping elements mount the workpiece on a flat board which is provided with a number of grooves and holes. Clamping with this method is time-consuming and is only used in the production of small series.
Turning can both be done in conventional manual machines, but more and more machines are used that are controlled by a computer, also called CNC.  As these machines have become easier to program, the field of application has increased and today one can often do one-piece work as quickly as in a conventional lathe.
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